IPF/UIP (Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/Usual Interstitial Pneumonia):

1. Carrington CB, Gaensler EA, Coutu RE, FitzGerald MX, Gupta RG.Natural history and treated course of usual (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). N Engl J Med. 1978 Apr 13; 298(15): 801-809. PMID: 634315.

2. Gross TJ, Hunninghake GW. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). N Engl J Med. 2001 Aug 16; 345(7): 517-525. PMID: 11519507.

3. American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS). Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): diagnosis and treatment. International consensus statement. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Feb; 161(2 Pt 1): 646-664. PMID: 10673212.

4. Crystal RG, Bitterman PB, Mossman B, Schwarz MI, Sheppard D, Almasy L, Chapman HA, Friedman SL, King TE Jr, Leinwand LA, Liotta L, Martin GR, Schwartz DA, Schultz GS, Wagner CR, Musson RA. Future research directions in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Jul 15; 166(2): 236-246. PMID: 12119236.

Mechanism of the process:

1. Selman M, King TE, Pardo A. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): prevailing and evolving hypotheses about its pathogenesis and implications for therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jan 16; 134(2): 136-151. Review. PMID: 11177318.

Treatment:

1. Ziesche R, Hofbauer E, Wittmann K, Petkov V, Block LH. A preliminary study of long-term treatment with interferon gamma-1b and low-dose prednisolone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). N Engl J Med. 1999 Oct 21; 341(17): 1264-1269. PMID: 10528036.

2. Nicod LP. Pirfenidone in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
Lancet. 1999 Jul 24; 354(9175): 268-269. PMID: 10440298.

3. Xaubet A, Agusti C, Luburich P, Roca J, Ayuso MC, Marrades RM, Rodriguez-Roisin R. Is it necessary to treat all patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)? Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 2001 Oct; 18(3): 289-295. PMID: 11587101.

4. Flaherty KR, Toews GB, Lynch JP 3rd, Kazerooni EA, Gross BH, Strawderman RL, Hariharan K, Flint A, Martinez FJ. Steroids in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): a prospective Assessment of adverse reactions, response to therapy, and survival. Am J Med. 2001 Mar; 110(4): 278-282. PMID: 11239846.

5. Ghofrani HA, Wiedemann R, Rose F, Schermuly RT, Olschewski H, Weissmann N, Gunther A, Walmrath D, Seeger W, Grimminger F. Sildenafil for treatment of lung fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002 Sep 21; 360(9337): 895-900. PMID: 12354470.

6. Vassallo R, Matteson E, Thomas CF Jr. Clinical response of rheumatoid arthritis-associated pulmonary fibrosis to tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibition. Chest. 2002 Sep; 122(3):1093-1096. PMID: 12226061.

7. Nagai S, Hamada K, Shigematsu M, Taniyama M, Yamauchi S, Izumi T.Open-label compassionate use one year-treatment with pirfenidone to patients with chronic pulmonary fibrosis. Intern Med. 2002 Dec; 41(12): 1118-1123. PMID: 12521199.

X-ray Findings:

1. MacDonald SL, Rubens MB, Hansell DM, Copley SJ, Desai SR, du Bois RM, Nicholson AG, Colby TV, Wells AU. MacDonald SL, Rubens MB, Hansell DM, Copley SJ, Desai SR, du Bois RM, Nicholson AG, Colby TV, Wells AU. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NIP) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP): comparative appearances at and diagnostic accuracy of thin-section CT. Radiology. 2001 Dec; 221(3): 600-605. PMID: 11719652.

2. Nagao T, Nagai S, Hiramoto Y, Hamada K, Shigematsu M, Hayashi M, Izumi T, Mishima M. Serial evaluation of high-resolution computed tomography findings in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP). Respiration. 2002; 69(5): 413-419. PMID: 12232448.

Lung Biopsy Findings:

1. King TE Jr, Schwarz MI, Brown K, Tooze JA, Colby TV, Waldron JA Jr, Flint A, Thurlbeck W, Cherniack RM. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): relationship between histopathologic features and mortality. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Sep 15;164(6):1025-32. PMID: 11587991 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2. Katzenstein AL, Zisman DA, Litzky LA, Nguyen BT, Kotloff RM. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP): histologic study of biopsy and explant specimens. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002 (Dec); 26 (12): 1567-1577. PMID: 12459623.

3. Nicholson AG, Fulford LG, Colby TV, du Bois RM, Hansell DM, Wells AU.The relationship between individual histologic features and disease progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Jul 15; 166(2): 173-177. PMID: 12119229.

Famililial IPF:

1. Marney A, Lane KB, Phillips JA 3rd, Riley DJ, Loyd JE. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) can be an autosomal dominant trait in some families. Chest. 2001 Jul; 120(1 Suppl): 56S. PMID: 11451917.

2. Hodgson U, Laitinen T, Tukiainen P. Nationwide prevalence of sporadic and familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): evidence of founder effect among multiplex families in Finland. Thorax. 2002 Apr; 57(4): 338-342. PMID: 11923553.

3. Wahidi MM, Speer MC, Steele MP, Brown KK, Schwarz MI, Schwartz DA. Familial pulmonary fibrosis in the United States.
Chest. 2002 Mar; 121(3 Suppl): 30S. PMID: 11893669.

4. Whitsett JA. Genetic basis of familial interstitial lung disease: misfolding or function of surfactant protein C? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 May 1; 165(9): 1201-1202. PMID: 11991863.

Outcome:

1. Fumeaux T, Rothmeier C, Jolliet P. Outcome of mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Intensive Care Med. 2001 Dec; 27(12): 1868-1874. PMID: 11797021.

2. Riha RL, Duhig EE, Clarke BE, Steele RH, Slaughter RE, Zimmerman PV. Survival of patients with biopsy-proven usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NIP). Eur Respir J. 2002 Jun; 19(6): 1114-1118.
PMID: 12108865.

3. Saydain G, Islam A, Afessa B, Ryu JH, Scott JP, Peters SG. Outcome of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) admitted to the intensive care unit. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Sep 15; 166(6): 839-842. PMID: 12231494.

Lung cancer in IPF:

1. Kawasaki H, Nagai K, Yoshida J, Nishimura M, Nishiwaki Y.Postoperative morbidity, mortality, and survival in lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). J Surg Oncol. 2002 Sep; 81(1): 33-37. PMID: 12210025.

2. Aubry MC, Myers JL, Douglas WW, Tazelaar HD, Washington Stephens TL, Hartman TE, Deschamps C, Pankratz VS. Primary pulmonary carcinoma in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Mayo Clin Proc. 2002 Aug; 77(8): 763-770. PMID: 12173712.

3. Demopoulos K, Arvanitis DA, Vassilakis DA, Siafakas NM, Spandidos DA. MYCL1, FHIT, SPARC, p16(INK4) and TP53 genes associated to lung cancer in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). J Cell Mol Med. 2002 Apr-Jun; 6(2): 215-222.
PMID: 12169206.

Creating an Environment to Heal:

1. De Vries J, Kessels BL, Drent M. Quality of life of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. Eur Respir J. 2001 May; 17(5): 954-961. PMID: 11488332.

Lung Transplantation:

1. Nonn RA, Garrity ER Jr. Lung transplantation for fibrotic lung diseases. Am J Med Sci. 1998 Mar; 315(3): 146-154. PMID: 9519927.

2. Meyers BF, Lynch J, Trulock EP, Guthrie TJ, Cooper JD, Patterson GA.Lung transplantation: a decade of experience. Ann Surg. 1999 Sep; 230(3): 362-370. PMID: 10493483.

3. Keck BM, Bennett LE, Rosendale J, Daily OP, Novick RJ, Hosenpud JD.Worldwide thoracic organ transplantation: a report from the UNOS/ISHLT International Registry for Thoracic Organ Transplantation. Clin Transpl. 1999; :35-49. PMID: 11038624.

4. Meyers BF, Lynch JP, Trulock EP, Guthrie T, Cooper JD, Patterson GA.Single versus bilateral lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a ten-year institutional experience. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000 Jul; 120(1): 99-107. PMID: 10884661.

5. Sulica R, Teirstein A, Padilla ML. Lung transplantation in interstitial lung disease. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2001 Sep; 7(5): 314-322. PMID: 11584182.

6. De Meester J, Smits JM, Persijn GG, Haverich A. Listing for lung transplantation: life expectancy and transplant effect, stratified by type of end-stage lung disease, the Eurotransplant experience. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2001 May; 20(5): 518-524. PMID: 11343978.

7. Miyoshi S, Minami M, Ohta M, Okumura M, Takeda S, Matsuda H. Single lung transplantation from a brain-dead donor for a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A breakthrough after new legislation in Japan. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001 Jun; 49(6): 398-403. PMID: 11481848.

8. Mogulkoc N, Brutsche MH, Bishop PW, Greaves SM, Horrocks AW, Egan JJ. Pulmonary function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and referral for lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Jul 1; 164(1):103-108. PMID: 11435247.

9. Wahidi MM, Ravenel J, Palmer SM, McAdams HP. Progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in native lungs after single lung transplantation. Chest. 2002 Jun; 121(6): 2072-2076. PMID: 12065382.

10. Haider Y, Yonan N, Mogulkoc N, Carroll KB, Egan JJ. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in single lung transplant recipients--patients with emphysema versus patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). J Heart Lung Transplant. 2002 Mar; 21(3): 327-33. PMID: 11897520.

11. Harringer W, Haverich A. Heart and heart-lung transplantation: standards and improvements.
World J Surg. 2002 Feb; 26(2): 218-25. PMID: 11865352.

12. Kruszka SJ, Gherman RB. Successful pregnancy outcome in a lung transplant recipient with tacrolimus immunosuppression. A case report. J Reprod Med. 2002 Jan;47(1):60-2. PMID: 11838314.

NIP (Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia):

1. Katzenstein AL, Fiorelli RF. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis (NIP). Histologic features and clinical significance. Am J Surg Pathol. 1994 Feb; 18(2): 136-147.
PMID: 8291652.

2. Katzenstein AL, Myers JL. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NIP) and the other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: classification and diagnostic criteria. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000 Jan; 24(1): 1-3. PMID: 10632482.

3. Flaherty KR, Travis WD, Colby TV, Toews GB, Kazerooni EA, Gross BH, Jain A, Strawderman RL, Flint A, Lynch JP, Martinez FJ. Flaherty KR, Travis WD, Colby TV, Toews GB, Kazerooni EA, Gross BH, Jain A, Strawderman RL, Flint A, Lynch JP, Martinez FJ. Histopathologic variability in usual (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonias (NIP). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 1; 164(9): 1722-1727. PMID: 11719316.

4. Kim DS, Yoo B, Lee JS, Kim EK, Lim CM, Lee SD, Koh Y, Kim WS, Kim WD, Colby TV, Kitiaichi M. The major histopathologic pattern of pulmonary fibrosis in scleroderma is nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NIP). Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 2002 Jun; 19(2): 121-127. PMID: 12108451.

X-ray Findings:

1. Kim EY, Lee KS, Chung MP, Kwon OJ, Kim TS, Hwang JH. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis (NIP): serial high-resolution CT findings with functional correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999 Oct; 173(4): 949-953.

2. MacDonald SL, Rubens MB, Hansell DM, Copley SJ, Desai SR, du Bois RM, Nicholson AG, Colby TV, Wells AU. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NIP) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP): comparative appearances at and diagnostic accuracy of thin-section CT. Radiology. 2001 Dec; 221(3): 600-605. PMID: 11719652.

3. Johkoh T, Muller NL, Colby TV, Ichikado K, Taniguchi H, Kondoh Y, Fujimoto K, Kinoshita M, Arakawa H, Yamada H, Suga M, Ando M, Koyama M, Nakamura H. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NIP): correlation between thin-section CT findings and pathologic subgroups in 55 patients. Radiology. 2002 Oct; 225(1): 199-204. PMID: 12355005.

Treatment:

1. Nanki N, Fujita J, Yamaji Y, Maeda H, Kurose T, Kaji M, Satoh K, Miyatani K, Yamadori I, Ohtsuki Y, Ishida T. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis (NIP) completely recovered by adding cyclophosphamide to corticosteroids. Intern Med. 2002 Oct; 41(10): 867-870. PMID: 12413012.

Outcome:

1. Nagai S, Kitaichi M, Itoh H, Nishimura K, Izumi T, Colby TV. Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis (NIP): comparison with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and BOOP.
Eur Respir J. 1998 Nov; 12(5): 1010-1019. PMID: 9863989.

2. Cottin V, Donsbeck AV, Revel D, Loire R, Cordier JF. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NIP). Individualization of a clinicopathologic entity in a series of 12 patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Oct; 158(4): 1286-1293. PMID: 9769293.

3. Daniil ZD, Gilchrist FC, Nicholson AG, Hansell DM, Harris J, Colby TV, du Bois RM. A histologic pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NIP) is associated with a better prognosis than usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 Sep; 160(3): 899-905. PMID: 10471616.

4. Travis WD, Matsui K, Moss J, Ferrans VJ. Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NIP): prognostic significance of cellular and fibrosing patterns: survival comparison with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). Am J Surg Pathol. 2000 Jan; 24(1): 19-33.
PMID: 10632484.

5. Riha RL, Duhig EE, Clarke BE, Steele RH, Slaughter RE, Zimmerman PV. Survival of patients with biopsy-proven usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NIP). Eur Respir J. 2002 Jun; 19(6): 1114-1118.
PMID: 12108865.

6. Bouros D, Wells AU, Nicholson AG, Colby TV, Polychronopoulos V, Pantelidis P, Haslam PL, Vassilakis DA, Black CM, du Bois RM.Histopathologic subsets of fibrosing alveolitis in patients with systemic sclerosis and their relationship to outcome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Jun 15; 165(12): 1581-1586. PMID: 12070056.

DIP (Desquamative Interstitial Pneumonia)

1. Carrington CB, Gaensler EA, Coutu RE, FitzGerald MX, Gupta RG.Natural history and treated course of usual (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). N Engl J Med. 1978 Apr 13; 298(15): 801-809. PMID: 634315.

2. Heyneman LE, Ward S, Lynch DA, Remy-Jardin M, Johkoh T, Muller NL.Respiratory bronchiolitis (RB), respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP): different entities or part of the spectrum of the same disease process? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999 Dec; 173(6): 1617-1622. PMID: 10584810.

3. Travis WD, Matsui K, Moss J, Ferrans VJ. Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NIP): prognostic significance of cellular and fibrosing patterns: survival comparison with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). Am J Surg Pathol. 2000 Jan; 24(1): 19-33. PMID: 10632484.

4. Ryu JH, Colby TV, Hartman TE, Vassallo R. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: a concise review. Eur Respir J. 2001 Jan; 17(1): 122-132. PMID: 11307741.

LIP (Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia)

1. Teirstein AS, Rosen MJ. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP). Clin Chest Med. 1988 Sep; 9(3): 467-571. PMID: 3044682.

2. Swigris JJ, Berry GJ, Raffin TA, Kuschner WG. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP). Chest. 2002 Dec; 122(6): 2150-2164. PMID: 12475860.

GIP (Giant Cell Interstitial Pneumonia)

1. Daroca PJ Jr, George WJ. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP). South Med J. 1991 Feb; 84(2): 257-263. PMID: 1990465.

2. Ohori NP, Sciurba FC, Owens GR, Hodgson MJ, Yousem SA. Giant-cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) and hard-metal pneumoconiosis. A clinicopathologic study of four cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 1989 Jul; 13(7): 581-587. PMID: 2660610.

3. Lee SM, Moon CH, Oh YB, Kim HY, Ahn Y, Ko EJ, Joo JE. Giant-cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) in a gas station worker. J Korean Med Sci. 1998 Oct; 13(5) :545-547. PMID: 9811187.

4. Kinoshita M, Sueyasu Y, Watanabe H, Tanoue S, Okubo Y, Koga T, Kawahara M, Nagata E, Oizumi K. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) in two hard metal workers: the role of bronchoalveolar lavage in diagnosis. Respirology. 1999 Sep; 4(3): 263-266. PMID: 10489670.

5. Kakugawa T, Mukae H, Nagata T, Ishii H, Kaida H, Hayashi T, Suematsu T, Kadota J, Kohno S. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) in a 15-year-old boy. Intern Med. 2002 Nov; 41(11): 1007-1012. PMID: 12487179.

AIP (Acute Interstitial Pneumonia)

1. Katzenstein AL, Myers JL, Mazur MT. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). A clinicopathologic, ultrastructural, and cell kinetic study. Am J Surg Pathol. 1986 Apr; 10(4): 256-267. PMID: 3706612.

2. Olson J, Colby TV, Elliott CG. Hamman-Rich syndrome revisited. Mayo Clin Proc. 1990 Dec; 65(12):1538-1548. PMID: 2255216.

3. Johkoh T, Muller NL, Taniguchi H, Kondoh Y, Akira M, Ichikado K, Ando M, Honda O, Tomiyama N, Nakamura H. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP): thin-section CT findings in 36 patients. Radiology. 1999 Jun; 211(3): 859-863. PMID: 10352616.

4. Bouros D, Nicholson AC, Polychronopoulos V, du Bois RM. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). Eur Respir J. 2000 Feb; 15(2): 412-8. PMID: 10706513.

5. Vourlekis JS, Brown KK, Cool CD, Young DA, Cherniack RM, King TE, Schwarz MI. Acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP). Case series and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2000 Nov; 79(6): 369-78. PMID: 11144035.

6. Ichikado K, Suga M, Muller NL, Taniguchi H, Kondoh Y, Akira M, Johkoh T, Mihara N, Nakamura H, Takahashi M, Ando M. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP): comparison of high-resolution computed tomography findings between survivors and nonsurvivors. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Jun 1; 165(11): 1551-1556. PMID: 12045132.

Miscellaneous Books and Articles

1. Coping with Prednisone by Eugenia Zukerman.